Saturday, July 30, 2011

Ionic Compounds Study Guide

Ionic Compounds

Binary Compounds I & II

            1. Binary Compounds I
A. Identification
1. Metal – Nonmetal (no O present)
                                    2. Metal salts
                                    3. non-metal suffix – “ide”
                        B. General Hazards
                                    1. Water reactive
                                    2. Alkali solutions
                                    3. Flammable Toxic Gas
                        C. Examples
                                    1. Potassium Sulfide
                                    2. Aluminum Cloride
                                    3. Calcium Nitride

            2. Binary Compounds II
                        A. Identification – same as Binary I
                                    1. Metals have the potential to have multiple charges
                                    2. non-metal suffix – “ide”
                                    3.Metal suffix – “ous” for lower valence; “ic” for higher valence
                                                1. Systematic naming – Roman Numeral I & II
                        B. General Hazards
                                    1. Water reactive
                                    2. Alkali solutions
                                    3. Flammable Toxic Gas
                        C. Examples
                                    1. Cuprous Cloride or Copper II Cloride
                                    2. Cobaltous Cloride or Cobalt II Cloride
                                    3, Ferrous Cloride or Iron Cloride

Metal Oxides – Metal Oxide Salt
A. Identification
                        1. Metal with one oxygen
                        2. Metal named first w/ non-metal oxygen identified as “oxide”
            B. General Hazards
                        1. water reactive w/ heat generated with reaction
                        2. corrosive solution – depending on base metal
                                    a. if O attached to alkali metal, corrosivity increases
                                    b. may act as an oxidizer
            C. Examples
                        1. Aluminum Oxide
                        2. Arsenic Oxide
                        3. Beryllium Oxide

Inorganic Peroxides

          A. Identification
1.Similar to metal oxides; instead of 1 O attached, 2 O attached
                        2. Peroxide complex – an anion
                        3. A metal + peroxide ion
                        4. dioxide sometimes used in the name
            B. General Hazards
                        1. Heat generated w/reaction
                        2. Strong oxidizers
                        3. Water reactive
                        4. Corrosivity depends upon base metal
            C. Examples
                        1. Barium Peroxide
                        2. Calcium Peroxide
                        3. Cesium Peroxide

Oxygenated Inorganic Compounds ( Oxy Salts )

          A. Identification
                        1. Metal + Non-metal oxygenated ion
                                    a. Oxy ions are covalently bonded
                        2. The state of the compound identifies the prefix and suffix used
3. Naming configuration starts with the normal oxygenated state of  the oxy ion
            a. More than one O – Prefix “Per” Suffix “ate”
            b. Normal state of O -                     Suffix “ate”
            c. Less than one O -                         Suffix “ite”
            d. Less than two O – Prefix “Hypo” Suffix “ite”

                                    a. Base naming for oxy ions – Normal State – suffix “ate” (-1 ions)
                                                1. Chlorate ClO3
                                                2. Bromate BrO3
                                                3. Iodate IO3
                                                4. Nitrate NO3
                                                5. Manganate MnO3
                                    b. Base naming for (-2 ions)
                                                1. Carbonate CO3
                                                2. Sulfate SO4
                                    c. Base naming for (-3 ions)
                                                1. Phosphate PO4
                                                2. Borate BO3
                                                3. Arsenate AsO4

                        4. Example
                                    NaClO4 Sodium Perchlorate
                                    NaClO3 Sodium Chlorate
                                    NaClO2 Sodium Chlorite
                                    NaClO   Sodium Hypochlorite

Metal Hydroxides

          A. Identification
                        1. Compounds that combine a metal and the hydroxide radical OH
                        2. The name of the metal + “hydroxide”
                        3. OH has a valence of -1
            B. General Hazards
                        1. Produce heat during reaction
                        2. If mixed with water, produces a caustic solution
                        3. Corrosive qualities dependent on the base metal
            C. Examples
                        1. Aluminum Hydroxide
                        2. Beryllium Hydroxide
                        3. Cesium Hydroxide
                        4. Potassium Hydroxide

Inorganic Acids (Do not confuse with Binary Acids)

          A. Identification
                        1. Hydrogen + Polyatomic Non –metal
                        2. Naming configuration
                                    a. Normal base state of the poly ion is identified
                                    b. Name ends w/acid
                                    c. Look at the number of oxygens in the poly/NM
                                                1. More than 1  – Prefix “Per”    Suffix “ic”
                                                2. Normal state   -                          Suffix “ic”
                                                3. Less than 1  -                              Suffix “ous”
                                                4. Less than 2  – Prefix “Hypo”  Suffix “ous”
            B. General Hazards
                        1. Toxic Corrosive
                        2. Corrosive poison
                        3. Oxidizer
            C. Examples
                        1. Hypochlorous Acid
                        2. Boric Acid
                        3. Sulfuric Acid
                        4. Nitrous Acid

Binary Acids (Do not confuse with Inorganic Acids)

          A. Identification
                        1. H + NM from VIB or VIIB – Hydrogen Halides
                        2. Gaseous in pure form
                        3. Aqueous when placed in water
4. H is changed to hydro; NM ending becomes “ic”; the word acid is added to the end
            B. General Hazards
                        1. Toxic corrosive
                        2. Corrosive poison
                        3. Poison
            C. Examples
                        1. Hydrobromic acid
                        2. Hydrofluoric acid
                        3. Hydrochloric acid


          A. Identification
                        1. Have water included in the molecule
                        2. Appear wet; however are extremely dry substances
                        3. Can be identified by the “ ·  ” in the formula
                        4. Salt · H20
                                    a. Name the salt
b. Identify the number of water molecules ( utilize greek numbering system – (1)mono, (2)di, (3)tri, (4)tetra, (5) penta, (6)hexa, (7)hepta, (8)octa
                                    c. End with “hydrate”
            B. General Hazards
                        1. Strong affinity for water
            C. Examples
                        1. Barium Hydroxide Octahydrate
                        2. Aluminum Oxide Trihydrate

Binary Non-salts

A. Identification
            1. NM + NM
            2. No Carbon within the compound
            3. No polyatomic ion present
            4. Greek numbering system used
            5. Name of NM, then Greek number of the second NM and end in “ide”
B. General Hazards
            1. Flammable
            2. water reactive
            3. Toxic
            4. Oxidizer
            5. Release of flammable and toxic gases
C. Examples
            1. Iodine Pentafluoride
            2. Bromine Pentafluoride
            3. Phosphorous Heptasulfide

Non-Metal Oxides

A. Identification
            1. Name the principle atom that is not oxygen
            2. Count the number of oxygen atoms, and apply the Greek number
            3. End with “oxide”
B. General Hazards
            1. Commonly found in products of combustion
                        a. Asphyxiants
                        b .Irritants
                        c. Carcinogens
C. Examples
            1. Sulfur Dioxide
            2. Sulfur Trioxide
            3. Carbon Monoxide

Ammonia, Cyanide, and Azide Compounds



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