Ionic bonding Vs. metallic bonding
As proposed by the American Chemical GNLewis, atoms are stable when they contain eight electrons in its valence shell. Most atoms have fewer than eight valence electrons in its shell (with the exception of noble gases in Group 18 of the periodic table), therefore are not stable. These atoms tend to react with each other to become stable. Thus, each atom can achieve a noble gas electron configuration. This can be done by forming ionic bonds, covalent or metallic.
Atoms can gain or lose electrons and become positively or negatively charged particles, respectively. These particles are called ions. There are electrostatic interactions between ions. Ionic bond is the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions. The strength of the electrostatic interaction is largely influenced by the electronegativity of atoms in an ionic bond. Electronegativity is a measure of the affinity of the atoms of electrons. An atom with high electronegativity can attract the electrons of an atom with low electronegativity to form an ionic bond. For example, sodium chloride is an ionic bond between ions of sodium and chloride ion. Sodium is a metal, therefore, has a very low electronegativity (0.9) compared with chlorine (3.0). Because of this difference in electronegativity, the chlorine can attract an electron from the sodium form of Cl-and Na +. For this reason, the two atoms for stability, noble gas electron configuration.
Metals are the atoms that can form cations by removing electrons. Group 1, Group 2 and transition elements are metals. Most metals are the time in the solid phase. The type of link between the shapes of the metal atoms is called metallic bonding. Metals release electrons in its outer layer, and these electrons are scattered among the metal cations. Therefore, they are known as a sea of delocalized electrons. Electrostatic interactions between electrons and cations are called metallic bond. The number of electrons released in the sea, and the size of the cation determines the strength of the metal union. Size of the cations is inversely proportional to the strength of the union, and the number of electrons released is directly proportional to the strength of metal binding. The electrons can move, so that the metals have the ability to conduct electricity. Due to the metal union metals have an orderly structure.
Cl-and Na + are held together by electrostatic attractive forces, forming an ionic bond.
High melting points and boiling points of metals are also due to strong metal union. Metals are solid and not fragile, due to the strength of metallic bond.